LP3/ Examples

Some examples of Performance lord can be found around us.

smartphones-security-tips
Smart phone is one example of this. It lighten so much physical works such as writing letters, calculating,or searching information books by email function, calculation, and internet function.

ph1s
Also, finger prints services are also counted as the cutting performance lord. When it is used for cars users do not have to open the doors with their hands, and when it is used for security lock users can save the time by cutting the process of identification. All these functions can lighten users physical performance lord.

P1030518-thumb-300x225-120

In addition, automatic sensor can be the reduction of performance lord. Every electronic device – television, lamps, audio or air-conditioner can turn off automatically according to whether there is human or not. In this process, these devices save the physical action to turn off, Thus, these tools lighten physical performance lord.

Reference
[smartphones-security-tips]. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from:
https://www.rapidsslonline.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2014/06/smartphones-security-tips.jpg,

[Untitled photograph of finger print identification]. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from:
http://pc.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/NPC/20070829/280705/ph1s.jpg,

[Untitled photograph of light]. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from:
http://kobe-denki.co.jp/blog/denki/assets_c/2012/01/P1030518-thumb-300×225-120.jpg,

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LP3/ Q3- Discussion

In this article, the author adopted a lot of data from psychology studies into the discussion of effective visual design. This might be because visual design is deeply related to the study of psychology. When people see designs, they need a lot of steps such as perceiving objects, analyzing it, and understanding the meaning. In other words, visualizing design is a big mental activity, a main part of psychology study. Errey, Ginns and Pitts (2006, p. 7) also state that designers can work more effectively if they can understand the principles of cognitive psychology when designing user experiences. Therefore, it is necessary to take account of psychological theories in the discussion of visual design.

References
Errey, C., Gins, P., & Pitts, C. (2006). Cognitive load theory and user interface design: making software easy to use. Retrieved from http://www.ptg-global.com/PDFArticles/Cognitive%20load%20theory%20and%20user%20interface%20design%20Part%201%20v1.0.pdf

LP3/ Q2- Discussion

Chunking is one way to reduce cognitive information. Cherry defines it as ‘the process of taking individual units of information and grouping them into larger units’ in the field of psychology. Therefore, in the discussion of design and visual communication, this means to lighten the amount of information by grouping.

According to Errey, Ginns and Pitts (2006, p. 3), The memory can typically hold 7±2 items for rehearsal, and it will rapidly decay if nothing special done to keep quality. Instead of storing information in ‘bytes’ as in computers, it is stored in chunks of information. For example, it is popular to combine phone numbers not the list of all numbers but into chunks. Consider remembering the phone number 98328903 as opposed to 9 8 3 2 8 9 0 3. The one which is chunked is much easy to recognize that the latter. The chunks of information can vary from simple characters and numerals to more complex abstracts and images. The working memory can be expanded by abstracting qualities from the basic information and store the abstraction instead. Also, Chunking does not have to be based upon any logic within the elements of the material. However, if there is an underlying meaning/logic that can be identified, it is much easier to be recognized. In general, the more order that can be imposed on the raw data the better the chunking.

References
Cherry, K. What Is Chunking? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/chunking.htm

Errey, C., Gins, P., & Pitts, C. (2006). Cognitive load theory and user interface design: making software easy to use. Retrieved from http://www.ptg-global.com/PDFArticles/Cognitive%20load%20theory%20and%20user%20interface%20design%20Part%201%20v1.0.pdf

LP3/ Q1- Summary

An awareness of performance loading is one element needed to be considered for good design. According to Lidwell, Holden and Butler (2003), Performance Load is defined as ‘the degree of mental and physical activity required to achieve a goal’. There are two types of performance load: cognitive load and kinematic load.

Cognitive load is the amount of mental activity required to perform a task (Wilbert, 2007, p. 85). Cognitive load theory suggests when users are bombarded with information, due to a shortage of working memory, overall usability is decreased. This results in lower than desired user performance. (Sweller, 1988). Errey, Ginns and Pitts (2006, pp. 5-6) also explain that there are two types of cognitive load: intrinsic cognitive load and extraneous cognitive load. The former is determined by the intrinsic nature of the to be learned content, while the latter is due to the instructional materials used in the presentation of information. It is optimal to minimize visual noise for reducing the cognitive load, to chunk information, to use memory aids, and to automate computation and memory intensive tasks.

Kinematic load is the degree of physical activity for achievement goal (Lidwell, Holden & Butler, 2003, p. 148). It is significant to decrease the degree of kinematic load by reducing steps needed for completion of tasks, minimizing motion and travel distances and automating repetitive tasks.

References
Errey, C., Gins, P., & Pitts, C. (2006). Cognitive load theory and user interface design: making software easy to use. Retrieved from http://www.ptgglobal.com/PDFArticles/Cognitive%20load%20theory%20and%20user%20interface%20design%20Part%201%20v1.0.pdf

Lidwell, W., Holden, K., & Butler, J. (2003). Aesthetic‐Usability Effect. In Universal Principles of Design (pp. 148- 149). Massachusetts: Rockport.

Seller, J. (1988). Cognitive Load Theory. Retrieved from http://www.instructionaldesign.org/theories/cognitive-load.html

Wilbert, O. G., (2007). The essential guide to user interface design: an introduction to GUI design principles and techniques. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com.au