LP4/ Examples

Here are examples of trustworthy websites.

presumed site
This is the website of Médecins du Monde, international NPO for medical issues, and an example of presumed credibility. The ‘org’ sign shows that this organization is fair, right. Thus, this website is credible.

reputed site
This website is one example of reputed credibility. It was awarded as the best designed website in 2013, and the title secures the reliability of this website.

surface site
This is an example of surface credibility; the design is well organised and looks professional, thus this website is worth while to trust.

earned site
Final example slide is for earned credibility. I have used the website ‘Amazon’ before, and there was no trouble such as delivery or money transferring. This is why I keep purchase goods on this website. Moreover, even though those who have not used this website, they can rely on other’s experiences. This shows the earned credibility of the website.



LP4/ Q3 – Discussion

People’s perception of web credibility has changed over time. According to Fogg’s data (2003, p. 154), there are two potential features which reduce credibility of websites: Self- appeal and automatic features.

Firstly, users might find websites in which companies appeal their own accomplishments less credible. In the findings of Fogg’s studies, people appreciate less site that ‘…displays an award it has won’ or ‘the site lists author’s credentials for each article’ (the score of credibility dropped down more than 0.5 points in both websites). This is possibly because these days false awards or identification are easy to manufacture, and they do not secure any credibility.

Secondly, web users will find a site less credible when they sense automatic features operating on a website. This can be seen from the score of ‘the site [that] provides a quick response to your customer service questions’ falling down from 2.0 to 1.8. In addition, the score of ‘the site sends emails confirming the transactions you make’ also dropped off for 0.6 points. On the contrary, more users appreciate websites which are updated frequently, or sites that show photographs of the organization’s members. This shows that people does not trust automatic functions of websites but tend to prefer the sense of the actual existence of humans behind website.

In conclusion, there are two features which can reduce credibility of website: self- appealing and automatic features. Web designers have to pay attention to these factors to ensure they are viewed as credible.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do. Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

LP4/ Q2 – Discussion

In the leaning portfolio, Wikipedia is not permitted as resource. This is because, Wikipedia is not credible source for academic essays.

Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia which everyone can use or edit. A merit of this system is that users can get information even from minor fields, because as long as there is one person who has knowledge about the field, he can write articles. In other words, Wikipedia is an aggregation of all knowledge. However, the disadvantage of this system is that not all information is accurate, because writers do not have to be in charge of the articles. This leads to a lack of credible sources, experts – all factors needed for trustworthiness and expertise as pointed out by Fogg(2003). This means that not all information on Wikipedia is credible. In fact, Chesney (2006) claims that about ‘13 percent of the articles contain mistakes’.

When it comes to academic writing, students are required to discuss their opinions reference to trustworthy sources. Thus, Wikipedia is not a suitable source for academic writing. Ghajar says that even Jimmy Wales, the Wikipedia founder says ‘I don’t think people should cite it, … People shouldn’t be citing encyclopedias in the first place. Wikipedia and other encyclopedias should…give good, solid background information to inform your studies for a deeper level”. Therefore, Wikipedia is not accepted as a credible resource for academic assignments.

Chesney, T. (2006, November 6). An empirical examination of Wikipedia’s credibility [Blog Post]. Retrieved from http://firstmonday.org/article/view/1413/1331

Ghajar, L., A. Wikipedia: Credible Research Source or Not? Retrieved from http://teachinghistory.org/digital-classroom/ask-a-digital-historian/23863

LP4/ Q1- Discussion

Today we can access the internet and work online easily thanks to developments in technology. Our lives are made more convenient by the internet. However, not all of the information found online is trustworthy. Some information is inaccurate or even deliberately misleading. For example, Australian Competition and Consumer Commission showed the number of reported online shopping scams increased 65% in 2012 (2013). Therefore, it is very important to evaluate the credibility of information found on the internet.

According to Fogg (2003), credibility is composed of two factors: trustworthiness and expertise. Trustworthiness captures the perceived morality of the source, accomplished by the perception that a source is fair or perceived similarities. Expertise is the perceived knowledge, skill, and experience of the source, and this is achieved by profession, appearance cues, and documentation of accomplishments.

This discussion is also important for students. In academic writing, all students are required to think critically and support their opinions with credible sources. Thus, it is vital for students to select only credible information. Walsh (2013) also explains the importance of evaluating credibility by saying ‘I can recall many instances where students would stress out about how to cite an online source;… but, the more important issue was to determine whether the source was worth citing in the first place’. Thus, evaluation of websites is essential for students and their academic work.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 122‐125). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Fogg, B. J. (2003). Credibility and the World Wide Web. In Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do (pp. 147‐181). Amsterdam: Morgan Kaufmann Publishers.

Online shopping scams: Don’t let them wreck your Christmas (n.d). Retrieved from http://learn.nab.com.au/online-shopping-scams-dont-let-them-wreck-your-christmas/

Walsh, K. (2012). The Importance of Source Evaluation and Content Credibility Skills for Today’s Students. Retrieved from http://www.emergingedtech.com/2012/05/the-importance-of-source-evaluation-and-content-credibility-skills-for-todays-students/

LP3/ Examples

Some examples of Performance lord can be found around us.

Smart phone is one example of this. It lighten so much physical works such as writing letters, calculating,or searching information books by email function, calculation, and internet function.

Also, finger prints services are also counted as the cutting performance lord. When it is used for cars users do not have to open the doors with their hands, and when it is used for security lock users can save the time by cutting the process of identification. All these functions can lighten users physical performance lord.


In addition, automatic sensor can be the reduction of performance lord. Every electronic device – television, lamps, audio or air-conditioner can turn off automatically according to whether there is human or not. In this process, these devices save the physical action to turn off, Thus, these tools lighten physical performance lord.

[smartphones-security-tips]. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from:

[Untitled photograph of finger print identification]. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from:

[Untitled photograph of light]. Retrieved October 26, 2014, from:

LP3/ Q3- Discussion

In this article, the author adopted a lot of data from psychology studies into the discussion of effective visual design. This might be because visual design is deeply related to the study of psychology. When people see designs, they need a lot of steps such as perceiving objects, analyzing it, and understanding the meaning. In other words, visualizing design is a big mental activity, a main part of psychology study. Errey, Ginns and Pitts (2006, p. 7) also state that designers can work more effectively if they can understand the principles of cognitive psychology when designing user experiences. Therefore, it is necessary to take account of psychological theories in the discussion of visual design.

Errey, C., Gins, P., & Pitts, C. (2006). Cognitive load theory and user interface design: making software easy to use. Retrieved from http://www.ptg-global.com/PDFArticles/Cognitive%20load%20theory%20and%20user%20interface%20design%20Part%201%20v1.0.pdf

LP3/ Q2- Discussion

Chunking is one way to reduce cognitive information. Cherry defines it as ‘the process of taking individual units of information and grouping them into larger units’ in the field of psychology. Therefore, in the discussion of design and visual communication, this means to lighten the amount of information by grouping.

According to Errey, Ginns and Pitts (2006, p. 3), The memory can typically hold 7±2 items for rehearsal, and it will rapidly decay if nothing special done to keep quality. Instead of storing information in ‘bytes’ as in computers, it is stored in chunks of information. For example, it is popular to combine phone numbers not the list of all numbers but into chunks. Consider remembering the phone number 98328903 as opposed to 9 8 3 2 8 9 0 3. The one which is chunked is much easy to recognize that the latter. The chunks of information can vary from simple characters and numerals to more complex abstracts and images. The working memory can be expanded by abstracting qualities from the basic information and store the abstraction instead. Also, Chunking does not have to be based upon any logic within the elements of the material. However, if there is an underlying meaning/logic that can be identified, it is much easier to be recognized. In general, the more order that can be imposed on the raw data the better the chunking.

Cherry, K. What Is Chunking? Retrieved from http://psychology.about.com/od/cindex/g/chunking.htm

Errey, C., Gins, P., & Pitts, C. (2006). Cognitive load theory and user interface design: making software easy to use. Retrieved from http://www.ptg-global.com/PDFArticles/Cognitive%20load%20theory%20and%20user%20interface%20design%20Part%201%20v1.0.pdf